Contents

 

PART ONE: FUNDAMENTALS and THEORY

 

1. Introduction††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 1.1 Contemporary Security Environment

††††† 1.2 Exercises

††††††††††† 1.2.1 Military and Civilian Exercises

††††††††††† 1.2.2 Live Exercises

††††††††††† 1.2.3 Command Post Exercises

††††††††††† 1.2.4 Computer Assisted Exercises

††††† 1.3 Military Simulation

††††† 1.4 Scope of the Book

††††† 1.5 Structure of the Book

††††† 1.6 Electronic Resources for the Book

††††† 1.7 Review Questions

2. Conflict and Warfare†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 2.1 Paradigms of War

††††† 2.2 Evolution of Warfare

††††††††††† 2.2.1 First, Second and Third Generation of Warfare

††††††††††† 2.2.2 Fourth and Fifth Generation of Warfare

††††† 2.3 Operations

††††††††††† 2.3.1 Conventional Operations

††††††††††† 2.3.2 Special Operations

††††††††††† 2.3.3 Crises Response Operations

††††††††††† 2.3.4 Peace Operations

††††††††††† 2.3.5 Network Centric Warfare

††††††††††† 2.3.6 Logistics

††††††††††† 2.3.7 Information Operations

††††††††††† 2.3.8 Psychological Operations

††††††††††† 2.3.9 Effect Based Approach to Operations

††††† 2.4 Comprehensive Approach to Operations

††††††††††† 2.4.1 Civil Military Cooperation

††††††††††† 2.4.2 Economical and Social Aspects

††††††††††† 2.4.3 Comprehensive Approach and Itís Application

††††† 2.5 Review Questions

3. Statistics and Probability†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 3.1 Descriptive Statistics: Population, Sample, Central Tendency and Dispersion

††††† 3.2 Probability

††††††††††† 3.2.1 Counting Techniques

††††††††††† 3.2.2 Independence, Multiplication Rule and Conditional Probability

††††††††††† 3.2.3 Mutually Exclusive Events and Addition Rule

††††††††††† 3.2.4 Total Probability and Bayesís Theory

††††† 3.3 Random Variable

††††††††††† 3.3.1 Discrete Distributions

††††††††††††††††† 3.3.1.1 The Uniform Distribution

††††††††††††††††† 3.3.1.2 The Binomial Distribution

††††††††††††††††† 3.3.1.3 The Geometric Distribution

††††††††††††††††† 3.3.1.4 The Negative Binomial Distribution

††††††††††††††††† 3.3.1.5 The Hypergeometric Distribution

††††††††††††††††† 3.3.1.6 Poisson Distribution

††††††††††† 3.3.2 Continuous Distributions

††††††††††††††††† 3.3.2.1 The Continuous Uniform (Rectangular) Distribution

††††††††††††††††† 3.3.2.2 The Exponential Distribution

††††††††††††††††† 3.3.2.3 The Normal (Gaussian) Distribution

††††† 3.4 Inferential Statistics

††††††††††† 3.4.1 Confidence Interval

††††††††††† 3.4.2 Hypothesis Test

††††††††††† 3.4.3 Goodness of Fit

††††† 3.5 Review Questions

4. Simulation††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 4.1 Pseudorandom Number Generation and Realization of Random

††††††††††† Variables

††††††††††† 4.1.1 Pseudorandom Number Generation

††††††††††† 4.1.2 Realization of Random Variables for a Simulation

††††† 4.2 Static Simulation

††††† 4.3 Dynamic Simulation

4.3.1 Discrete Event Simulation

4.3.2 Continuous Simulation

††††† 4.4 Phases in a Simulation

††††† 4.5 Review Questions

5. Distributed Simulation†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

5.1 Distributed Interactive Simulation

5.2 High Level Architecture

5.2.1 HLA Interface Specification

5.2.2 Object Model Template (OMT)

5.2.3 Federation Development and Execution Process (FEDEP)

5.2.4 HLA Rules

5.3 Base Object Model (BOM)

††††† 5.4 Review Questions

6. Experimentation and Analysis††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 6.1 Design of Experiment

††††† 6.2 Execution of Experiments

††††† 6.3 Data Analysis, Reporting and Presentation

††††† 6.4 Review Questions

 

PART TWO: COMBAT MODELLING, COMPUTER ASSISTED EXERCISES and PRACTICE

 

7. CAX Architectures††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 7.1 Distributed Exercises and Distributed Simulation

††††† 7.2 Multi Level and Multi Resolution Exercises

††††† 7.3 Cross Level, Joint and Combined Exercises

††††† 7.4 EXCON Structure

††††† 7.5 Response Cells

††††† 7.6 Training Audience

††††† 7.7 Review Questions

8. CAX Process††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 8.1 Exercise Specification

††††† 8.2 Planning and Preparation

††††††††††† 8.2.1 Scenario Development

††††††††††† 8.2.2 MEL/MIL Development

††††††††††† 8.2.3 CAX Databases and Database Management Process

††††† 8.3 Execution

††††† 8.4 Analysis

††††† 8.5 Review Questions

9. Combat Modeling††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 9.1 Terrain Modeling

††††††††††† 9.1.1 Environmental Data Representation

††††††††††† 9.1.2 Data Coding Standard

††††† 9.2 Attrition and Movement

††††††††††† 9.2.1 Lanchester Equations

††††††††††† 9.2.2 Stochastic Processing

††††† 9.3 Challenges in the Quantification for Non-Kinetic Warfare

††††† 9.4 Automated Forces

††††† 9.5 Challenges and Approaches in the Implementation

††††††††††† 9.5.1 Complex Systems and Fuzzy Trees

††††††††††† 9.5.2 Minimalist Modeling Methodology

†††††††††††††††††††† 9.5.2.1 Structural Simplicity

†††††††††††††††††††† 9.5.2.2 Behavioral Simplicity

†††††††††††††††††††† 9.5.2.3 Mathematical Elegance

†††††††††††††††††††† 9.5.2.4 Statistical Analysis

†††††††††††††††††††† 9.5.2.5 Organic Units

††††† 9.6 Combat Model Data

††††††††††† 9.6.1 Organizational Data

††††††††††† 9.6.2 Equipments, Weapons and Ammunition Data

††††††††††† 9.6.3 Terrain Data

††††††††††† 9.6.4 Environmental Data

††††† 9.7 Verification and Validation of Combat Models

††††† 9.8 Experimentation and Analysis of Operational Plans

††††† 9.9 Review Questions

10. Computer Assisted Exercise Support Tools††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 10.1 Military Constructive Simulations and Ancillary Tools

††††††††††† 10.1.1 High Resolution Constructive Simulations

††††††††††† 10.1.2 Highly Aggregated Constructive Simulations

††††††††††† 10.1.3 Constructive Simulations for Non-kinetic Warfare

††††††††††† 10.1.4 Federations

††††††††††† 10.1.5 Ancillary Tools

††††† 10.2 Planning and Management Tools

††††††††††† 10.2.1 Exercise Management Tools

††††††††††† 10.2.2 Scenario Management Tools

††††† 10.3 Mediationware

††††† 10.4 Review Questions

11. Communications/Information System Issues, Technical Risks and Risk Mitigation

††††† 11.1 Hardware and Software Requirements

††††† 11.2 Communications and QoS Requirements

††††† 11.3 Security Issues and Challenges

11.4 Game Crashes, Checkpoints and Crash Recovery

11.5 Shadow/Run Ahead Games

††††† 11.6 Backups and Archives

†††† 11.7 Networking Service Outages and Other Reasons for Failure

††††† 11.8 Review Questions

12. Exercise Centers and Facilities††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††

††††† 12.1 Organization of a Training/Exercise Centre

††††† 12.1.1 Operational Staff in a Training/Exercise Center

††††† 12.1.2 Technical Staff in a Training/Exercise Center

††††† 12.1.3 Support Staff in a Training/Exercise Center

††††† 12.1.4 Number of Teams and Staff in a Training/Exercise Center

††††† 12.2 Design Principles for Training/Exercise Centre Facilities

††††† 12.3 Review Questions